Tuesday, November 27, 2012

Revolutions of Art

I find it necessary to take a step back and examine the larger picture of things: the relationship of the Effigy to the world. The purpose of art varies by artist, nation, and time period, but often times art is created as a form of revolution. Its purpose can be to define a social habit, ignite a change, or rise up against an injustice. In the case of the Effigy, we find a piece of a revolution-- that of the survival of the Nokota horse. 

Thunder Hawk's Effigy honors the Blue Roan that is depicted by the ledger drawings of 'Artist B' (see: "An Hour With Castle McLaughlin"), but in doing so it also honors the descendants of that horse, the Nokotas. This is mainly because it is an old art form with a contemporary twist-- Thunder Hawk complies with tradition, but also adds his own fresh perspective by adding elements of his own artistic style. The hair found on the Effigy belongs to a horse that passed away five years ago, so the piece is very much a reference to horses existing today.

A Nokota horse

By having the Effigy in the exhibit, we are reminded of the importance of connecting ourselves to the past. The fact that Thunder Hawk is honoring a horse that once was, a horse that neither he nor us has ever met, is a sign that  what is behind us on a timeline has never truly been surpassed, or at least shouldn't be. Effigies teach us this to begin with-- to never forget those who have departed-- but the Effigy, as a dance stick, brings history to life. Its potential for movement in a dance ceremony is an indication that history exists in both a past and present state. The Nokota horses that McLaughlin and Thunder Hawk are dedicating themselves to under the Nokota Horse Conservancy are in a fight (a successful one at that) for survival. The following is the description of the organization's goals, as quoted from Nokotahorse.org
The Nokota® Horse Conservancy is a nonprofit organization established in 1999 to preserve the unique and historical Nokota® Horse. These wild horses of the northern plains inhabited the Little Missouri badlands, now encompassed by Theodore Roosevelt National Park, for more than a century. They were removed by the National Park Service and sold during the 1980s and 1990s. The vast majority of the remaining Nokota® horses now survive on the overburdened Kuntz Ranch. The goals of the Nokota® Horse Conservancy are to preserve these important horses by caring for them, promoting awareness of their plight, value, and use to others, and by working to establish a sanctuary where they can survive into the future. 
 The values behind the organization are, in this sense, revolutionary. The Effigy, just like the Nokota horses, is a reminder of this "plight, value, and use to others" that we find not only in the creatures themselves but also in history-- or more specifically, Native American history.  

On that note, the Wiyohpiyata: Lakota Images of the Contested West exhibit, in which the Effigy is found, is revolutionary due to the message it sends. It brings to light the importance of reviving the Native American past, something which often tends to be swept under the rug, so to speak. Sure, most American studies today learn about the culture at some point during their schooling years, but often times that's as far as exposure goes. Spending time in the exhibit at the Peabody (both by myself and with Dr. McLaughlin) has taught me more than I feel I could have ever learned from a textbook. It's important to experience culture all around you-- to see it, touch it, smell it, hear it, etc. If it envelopes you, you begin to feel history come alive. The Effigy, particularly in the context of the exhibit, achieves just that. It is revolutionary but also celebratory, and is a mode of expression through which we find not only stories of the past, but also stories of the present. 

Nokotahorse.org. The Nokota Horse Conservancy, n.d. Web. Nov. 2012. <http://www.nokotahorse.org/cms/>.

An Hour With Castle McLaughlin

Castle McLaughlin, co-curator of exhibit (alongside Thunder Hawk)
Several weeks ago I visited the Peabody Museum to inspect the Effigy, as I had countless times before. But what made this visit so special was the fact that I was going to meet the curator of the Wiyohpiyata Exhibit herself, Castle McLaughlin. When I arrived, she greeted me with a warm smile and two small booklets of information on the exhibit that stood before us. For the next hour or so, we walked our way around, often stopping to observe the Effigy, as she spoke and I took notes. The following information is what I gathered from our encounter, which was not only an eye-opening delight but also an exchange that further heightened and sharpened my interest in the object at hand, and star of the show: the Blue Roan Horse Effigy.   
  • Six artists contributed to the Half Moon Ledger drawings.
  • One of those artists McLaughlin and Thunder Hawk like to refer to as "Artist B." He is responsible for more drawings than the other five artists-- a total of 22 out of the 77-- and his art is recognizable in the depiction of himself the same Blue Roan horse. The horse is distinguishable from the rest because of its prominently blue body and black limbs and head, as shown below:
  • The blue color is a representation not only of the direction West, but also of the "constellation of forces that govern warfare."
  • The blue and black horse by Artist B (shown above) is actually a Blue Roan, but not all the horses that are blue in the ledger are Blue Roans; in some cases their color is simply symbolic of the direction West, and in actuality they were most likely grey, not blue.
  • In some cases, green was substituted for blue (when coloring materials ran out). [photograph to be uploaded soon] 
  • In ledger drawing #98, one of the four shown directly behind the Effigy (see below photograph, the drawing on the bottom right), the Artist B horse is being shot down. In fact, all four of those drawings depict the same horse (as they all resemble the one above), and tell its story in chronological order.

  •  The Lakota Sioux warriors (in warrior societies) would dance with the dance sticks and talk about what the horses had done when alive-- their successes, strengths, personal stories and the like. 
  • The warriors would honor their horses (when alive) by adorning them with feathers, or tying cloth around their necks. This explains the feathers and cloth that we see around the Effigy (see above). 
  • The carvers of these dance sticks would have ownership of practice, meaning that certain men were entitled to carving them. It couldn't be done by just anybody.
  • Joseph No Two Horns was a member of the Hunkpapa group, one of the seven council fires of the Lakota Sioux tribe. He is also a role model for Thunder Hawk because of his plethora of horse sticks, among other artwork, all collected at the State Historical Society of North Dakota. Thunder Hawk is also Hunkpapa, and was an apprentice in the art of effigy carving. His grandparents were artists, but he also went to college, so his artistic background consists of both an educational and traditional, family element. Thunder Hawk had gone to No Two Horns' descendants to ask for permission to continue the horse carving tradition, and upon receiving it he began carving in a style that was influenced by No Two Horns (basically in No Two Horns' style combined with his own).
  • The last of the Blue Roan ancestors of the Nokota horses (descendants of the Blue Roan horses, horses of the Lakota warriors) were killed or taken at Fort Buford, North Dakota in 1881 by the U.S. Army in an effort to discourage Native American mobility. This was part of a surrender by Sitting Bull, a Hunkpapa Lakota himself, despite a victory over Lt. Custer at the Little Big Horn. The horses were then sold to post traders, and over the years disappeared-- though leaving behind descendants that people like McLaughlin have dedicated their lives to preserving through the Nokota Horse Conservancy. One of the reasons the horse breed survived is a man by the name of Marquis de Mores. He saw value in the horses taken at Fort Buford and, being the aristocrat and rancher that he was, bought a grand total of 250 horses from the traders. Around 1887 De Mores returned to his native France, and left the horses behind--alongside other wild horses-- on land that would later become part of the Theodore Roosevelt National Park grounds. There, they interbred, resulting in the lineage leading to the Nokota horses of today.    
  • Butch Thunder Hawk is on the Nokota Horse Conservancy's Board of Directors.
  • Warriors (from 6-8 different warrior societies) would draw their stories of their horses on teepee liners. There is one on display in the exhibit. 
  • Those same men had dance sticks they would use with different dances to recount their experiences (with their war horses on the battlefield) to their families, friends, and fellow warriors around a fire. 
  • Today, though war societies don't exist anymore, the Sioux still honor and value their veterans, who are just as noble as the warriors of the past.
  • Butch Thunder Hawk is considered to be one of the best and most traditional effigy carvers and artists of his time, and he takes commissions for making effigies for contemporary horse deaths. The materials and pigments he uses are traditional.
  • In Thomas Jefferson's Monticello, there is a room called the Indian Hall, in which Butch Thunder Hawk's work is on display. It is a collaboration between himself and his own students, in an effort to reconstruct a modern version of fresh, contemporary Native American art. In that room there is a shield on which hangs the tail of a horse named "Target," whom the government had wanted to slaughter (alongside other horses in the Theodore Roosevelt National Park). The name "Target" was meant to be ironic, and as a reminder to the government that the stallion would survive, despite efforts to have the opposite occur. Theodore Roosevelt had ranched on the open range (in North Dakota), and spent his time writing about the wild horses that so fascinated him. When the park itself was created in the 1950s, some of the wild herds were accidentally confined within park borders-- which created problems for the National Park Service, which rules that it is in no way responsible for the protection of the horses because they are not 'historical objects.' 
  • Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota are three terms that essentially describe the same thing. They are three dialects of the Sioux people, but mark no political difference whatsoever. All three groups are part of the same culture overall. The term for the horses that survive today, the descendants of the Blue Roans, is Nokota. This term was coined as a combination of the words "North" and "Dakota," because the animal was the state horse of North Dakota in 1993. 
After our time together, Dr. McLaughlin provided me with Butch Thunder Hawk's contact information, so that I could have an actual phone interview with the artist of my focus of study. My jaw fell to the floor in response to this proposal, and thoughts of what I would even begin to ask Thunder Hawk bounced around in my mind. More on that to come...  

Sources (fact checking, images)
Nokotahorse.org. The Nokota Horse Conservancy, n.d. Web. Nov. 2012. <http://www.nokotahorse.org/cms/>.

 Walsh, Colleen. "They save Horses, Don't They?" Harvard Gazette. The President and Fellows of Harvard College, 16 Sept. 2010. Web. Nov. 2012. <http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2010/09/they-save-horses-don’t-they/>.         

Sunday, November 18, 2012

Abstract / Paper Proposal

The time has come for me to think expansively about what I have learned thus far regarding the Blue Roan Horse Effigy, and to answer the question, So what? Why does any of this information matter? 
Well, it certainly does, and I'm here to prove it! 

(General Guiding) Question: Why is the connection between the ledger drawings and the horse effigy important? 

Answer: Because it reminds us that Native American history is alive and relevant to the present. 

I am choosing to write a paper exploring the above question because I find that the Effigy does not exist on its own. It comes to life when the relationship it has with the ledger drawings (that are in fact its artist's inspiration and also physically presented with the effigy) is drawn out. The Peabody exhibit itself is successful in the sense that it presents a series of historical artifacts with several contemporary art pieces that, quite frankly, are almost indistinguishable because of their common artistic purpose. The parallels drawn between the Ledger and the Effigy are an example of this commonality, and are something we should play close attention to. The answer to my guiding question, that history is alive and present and therefore relevant to us viewers, is brought on by the following lineage of relationships:
In other words, the two middle elements--the Half Moon Ledger and the Blue Roan Horse Effigy--form the bridge between the horses of the Lakota Sioux warriors and the Nokota horses, which are descendants of those horses and whose lives are being preserved against government efforts. The Nokota themselves are living and breathing history, but the Effigy and Ledger piece together the horses' historical background and significance. The two individuals (and friends) who collaborated for the exhibit, artist Butch Thunder Hawk and curator Castle McLaughlin, can personally relate to the two art pieces. Thunder Hawk specializes in carving Native American effigies, having mastered the art form through a family of traditional artists. He is of the Hunkpapa Native American group, one of the seven branches of the Lakota Sioux tribe, so his perspective is cultural and fresh. McLaughlin is one of the reasons there are any Nokota alive to begin with, as she helped create the Nokota Horse Conservancy, a nonprofit group that dedicates itself to preserving the horse breed. 

When the ledger drawings were unearthed after having collected dust in Harvard's Houghton Library for at least 70 years, Thunder Hawk and McLaughlin were inspired to respond with an exhibit that would place the ledger in a spotlight (also quite literally) while surrounded with other artifacts and objects that would allow the viewer to understand its essence more fully. The Effigy is one of those objects, and deserves a great deal of attention because it has personal value (for Thunder Hawk and McLaughlin), and is historical while also contemporary. Perhaps one of its most important qualities is its potential for movement and interactivity; the effigy is also a dance stick, which means that its use in present day would bring history to life. Similarly to the ledger, it would emphasize the dedication, love, respect, and unity between man and horse. Ultimately, both the ledger drawings and Effigy are proof of the "supernatural bond between creature and human creation [that] empowered the Lakota warriors during battle"(Kumar and Ryan, 2010). It's also important to point out the direct relationship between the Effigy and the drawings; the former is meant to honor a horse that is represented over 15 times in the latter. 

Kumar, Gautam S., and Julia L. Ryan. "Enlivening Exhibits of Native American Art at the Peabody." The Harvard Crimson. Harvard Crimson, Inc., 9 Mar. 2010. Web. Nov. 2012. <http://www.thecrimson.com/article/2010/3/9/exhibit-lakota-native-american/>.

Walsh, Colleen. "They save Horses, Don't They?" Harvard Gazette. The President and Fellows of Harvard College, 16 Sept. 2010. Web. Nov. 2012. <http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2010/09/they-save-horses-don’t-they/>.

Sunday, November 11, 2012

Object Label

Considering the information I have gathered thus far on the Horse Effigy, I am faced with a hypothetical question: Suppose I were its curator, what label would I place by the object, and how would I exhibit it? 
The Blue Roan Horse Effigy shown here is a placeholder for a courageous, loyal, and strong horse that once lived amongst the Lakota Sioux warriors of the late 1800s. Butch Thunder Hawk, the artist, was inspired by a series of ledger drawings, bound together in a book titled The Half Moon Ledger, that were created by at least five different individuals. In response to such a beautiful and recently rediscovered historic gem, Thunder Hawk was inspired to react to the art by honoring its beloved subject. The detail with which it was created is personal and spiritual in meaning; its blue/black color and the lightning bolt that runs along its side represent the direction West, which was considered sacred, while features such as the red holes scattered across the body are literal representations of where the horse being honored was shot. The Horse Effigy also had a physical purpose-- it was used as a dance stick in war society ceremonies, in which the owner of the horse would dance with the effigy in hand and recount stories of its successes on the battlefield and of his own relationship with the deceased yet highly respected animal.
Modes of exhibition:

1. Presenting an entire collection of horse effigies together, but each one paired with a biography, photograph, and achievements of the horse that it is honoring. I envision the effigies placed in a large circle, so that each has its own share of space (to allow for direct attention of the viewer). The exhibit room is very dark, and a spotlight shines on each of the horse effigies separately, giving the feeling of performers on a stage. Everything in the room is quiet, except for the sounds of nature (specifically what one would hear in the Great Plains, home to the horses), which are quietly played through speakers which are not seen.    

2. It would be amazing to have an entire exhibit dedicated to just one horse, and ultimately one effigy-- the one that is the center of our focus (and this blog). The exhibit would not be a room, but rather a tunnel that has projections of moving images of the horse being honored, as well as other images that have personal value (reenactments of its death, for instance? Though that may be a tad cliche'...) The viewer would hear the owner's voice surround him/her, to listen to the story of the horse that once was. At the very end of the tunnel, after the "storytelling tunnel" of sorts, the viewers would reach the horse effigy, and understand it more, having heard about (and engulfed in!) its past. 

3. Some sort of an interactive exhibit could be interesting, if it wasn't overdone. The one thing I often regretted at the Peabody Museum was my inability to touch the effigy, to hold it and observe its weight, the sensation of its texture under my skin, etc. I've always particularly wanted to touch the hair on the object. It seems like such an intimate feature. The exhibit could also feature visiting effigy artists as guest speakers and instructors, who maybe could come teach the public on the creation of their beautiful creations! Maybe having some sort of mini effigy workshop (make your own effigy?) would interest people.

Sunday, November 4, 2012

Work Comparisons

While observing the Horse Effigy, it's both interesting and helpful to compare it to other works that are related to it either in subject matter or culture. Often times this can help us achieve our ultimate goal: to understand the object as deeply and intimately as possible. The following are four works that serve this purpose: 

1.) The Half Moon Ledger (artist: Half Moon, 1866-1876)
Though I've mentioned this before and it may seem obvious at this point, I can't emphasize enough just how important the ledger drawings are in relation to the Effigy. I think the two works are best represented together; only then do their essences truly shine. A fantastic online collection of ledger drawings may be found here.

Perhaps one of the most engaging qualities of the drawings is their color, their tones of deep yellows, blues, and reds. In the four drawings found behind the Effigy, we see a perfect example of this. Two of them (numbered 108 and 138, respectively) are shown below: 

"A Lakota Brave Rides A Blue Roan, 
Wearing A Coat Taken From A 
Cavalry Soldier" (#108)

                                                                           "A Chief In His Battle Finery 
                                                                                  Astride A Blue Roan" (#138)
The colors each represent one of the four sacred directions (North, South, East, West), and blue/black specifically symbolizes the Western direction. In fact, the name of the exhibit in which we find the Effigy and Half Moon Ledger--"Wiyohpiyata"--literally translates to "the direction West" in the Lakota language. According to the works' curator, Castle McLaughlin, the West also has spiritual and supernatural meaning for the Lakota. As noted in the pamphlet available at the exhibit, "In traditional Lakota belief, Wiyohpiyata... is one of four sacred directions that are associated with a color and animal spirits. Wiyohpiyata (black/blue) is home to the spirit of thunder and lightning, Wakinyan, the Winged-One or Thunder Bird. It controls the winds, the storms, and warfare. All things from the West are mysterious or holy" (1). 

Knowing this, we can see why Thunderhawk's Effigy would be decorated the way it is. It is painted blue and black to stay true to the real colors of the horse that once lived, but also serves purposes of direction identification. The lightning bolt that runs along the Effigy's side is, we may presume, symbolic of the thunder/lightning spirit, and the feathers that hang from beneath the horse's chin may also follow the Winged-One/Thunder Bird theme. What fascinates me the most is the similarity in the eyes of the Effigy and the horses depicted in image #108; both are circular and empty, perhaps in order to capture the fear of the animal felt during its time on the battlefield.  

2.) The Sioux Horse Effigy (late 19th C.)

The Sioux Horse Effigy is "one of the  most recognizable and cherished artifacts" at the South Dakota State Historical Society Museum. What makes this piece extremely unique, and a masterpiece of Native American sculpture, is its completeness; while most horse dance sticks are only of the animal's front half, this effigy is of the entire body (measuring 3 feet of carved wood). It was most likely carved by a Sioux warrior in the late 1800s-- around the time the ledger drawings were drawn/discovered-- to honor a horse that had been injured and/or killed but loyal and strong in battle. It was collected by a missionary to the Lakota, Mary Collins, who was respected and liked (loved, even) many many in the tribe.

Upon closer observation, we begin to see so many parallels between the object and Thunderhawk's effigy that it's almost as if Thunderhawk had purposely modeled his creation after it. For one thing, there are red holes scattered across the Sioux Effigy that are meant to represent bloodied bullet wounds suffered in battle, holes that are also very prevalent-- and identical-- in the Blue Roan Effigy. The Sioux Effigy's ears are slanted backward, just as they are in the Blue Roan, to perhaps depict a sense of fear and pain felt by the horse. Because of the Sioux Effigy's elongated body and legs raised and bent in a running motion, it is inferred that the horse is symbolically leaping from life to death. The amount of detail we observe in the Blue Roan Effigy exists in this one as well, particularly in the hair of the tail, mane, and what appears to be a gush of blood emanating from the mouth. 

The idea of parallels in the comparison of the two effigies appeals to me. Thunderhawk is a parallel to the original creator of the Sioux Effigy, which is in turn a parallel to Thunderhawk's effigy. They all combine to create a sense of timelessness, continuity of tradition, and development through generations. That is a truly special thing.           

3.) Horse Effigy Pipe Bowl (19th/20th C.)

This pipe bowl is actually from the same culture (the Lakota/Dakota Sioux) and region (Central Plains) as the Effigy, though from a slightly later time. It is made from catlinite, a type of mudstone, and measure 1.75 inches in size. A pipe bowl is the part of a pipe that is used to hold tobacco or any other substance that is to be smoked. Upon further research, we find that pipe smoking played a large role in Native American culture; though it served a variety of purposes across different tribes, the Lakota regarded it in a religious light. The pipe was sacred, and referred to as the chanunpa. The blood red color of catlinite is symbolic of the blood that has run through generations of  the tribe, as well as the blood of the buffalo, which was treasured-- particularly because of the fact that the Sioux lived in the Plains. The act of smoking was ritualistic, in that it was used in ceremonies as a means of connecting to the Great Spirit through prayer, thus forming communication between the spirit and earth worlds. Physical connection was created by the literal passing of smoke above the smoker's head, as the Great Spirit was spoken to. 

There were several types of pipes, and one of them was (and still is) the animal effigy pipe. The one above is that of a horse, and though different in function from the dancing stick effigy, it still serves the same ultimate purpose: to aid the connection between man and spirit. What interests me most, visually speaking at least, is the mane of the horse pipe; it is beautiful and elegant yet also simple, like the ambiguous features of the face/head. Similarly in the wooden Effigy, the mane is one of the most defining features that gives the rest of the piece life. It is real horse hair that bends and flows, unlike the stable wooden frame of the body. The mane of the horse pipe defines the curvature of the horse's neck and head, and is what differentiates the pipe from, let's say, another horse effigy pipe. We find that between the two effigies, the following features take precedence: color, shape, material, definition of detail. All of these things point us to the deeper purpose of the object at hand.  

4.) Horse Effigy Stick (artist: Butch Thunderhawk, 1998)

Approximately ten years prior to creating the Blue Roan Horse Effigy, Butch Thunderhawk began a similar project: the Hunkpapa Horse Effigy Stick. The Hunkpapa are one of the seven council fires of the Lakota Sioux. The description of the object, provided on the Peabody Museum Online Collections website, could easily be, for the most part, a description of the Blue Roan Effigy: 
Contemporary carved horse effigy stick of cottonwood, with brain-tanned bison hide, earth (ochres, charcoal mixed with bison hide scraping glue) and synthetic pigments (white is commercial acrylic), horse hair, synthetic hair, French brass tacks, buckskin; pouch contains wild bergamot (horse mint), glass beads, metal cones; sprayed with matte finish fixitive.
We do not have much other information on the object, other than its basic information (ie. date, artist, culture), but based on its similarities with the Blue Roan effigy, I can safely predict that it has a similar story to tell. Because the Half Moon ledger drawings were only recently rediscovered-- precisely why Thunderhawk and McLaughlin co-curated the exhibit to begin with-- I don't believe that the Hunkpapa effigy was a response to them, as was the Blue Roan effigy. Considering the significance of the ledger drawings, and the extent to which Thunderhawk studied them before embarking on his artistic co-curation journey for the Peabody Museum, one would think that the two effigies are not, despite their similarities, one and the same. Ideally, we could ask Thunderhawk how his approach differed between the creation of the two pieces, and as a result understand what makes the Blue Roan Effigy, our original focus, so unique.   


Wiyohpiyata: Lakota Images of the Contested West (exhibit pamphlet)

"Astor Collection 1937.5.219 - Horse Effigy Pipe Bowl." University of Virginia. Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia, 2012. Web. Nov. 2012.       <http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA04/ranger/astor_collection/objects/219.html>.

Historical Society, SD. "Sioux Horse Effigy Collected by Missionary to the Lakota."Rapid City Journal. N.p., 04 Oct. 2012. Web. Nov. 2012. <http://rapidcityjournal.com/news/local/communities/sturgis/sioux-horse-effigy-collected-by-missionary-to-the-lakota/article_71096f9e-b10a-5af2-8762-9bb222cab28b.html>.

Peabody Museum: Online Database. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, 2012. Web.       Nov. 2012. <http://pmem.unix.fas.harvard.edu:8080/peabody/exceptionreport;jsessionid=A1495125BEDF66D2EDABDC8F2E26F703?t:state:flow=ee4e807b-a469-4340-a881-00537db8c077>.

"South Dakota Heritage Fund." South Dakota Historical Society Foundation. SOUTH DAKOTA     HISTORICAL SOCIETY FOUNDATION, n.d. Web. Nov. 2012. <http://www.sdhsf.org/>.
Hill, Cherry. "Catlinite Pipestone Pipes: Ceremonial Effigy Offering 
        Pipes."Horsekeeping LLC. Cherry Hill and Horsekeeping, 2010. Web. Nov. 
        2012. <http://www.horsekeeping.com/ceremonial-home/pipes/pipes.htm>.
"Logo of the South Dakota State Historical Society." South Dakota State Historical Society
        South Dakota Department of Tourism, 2010. Web. Nov. 
"Plains Indian Ledger Art: View Ledgers." Plains Indian Ledger Art. University of California, n.d. Web. Nov. 2012. <https://plainsledgerart.org/ledgers/>.

"The Sioux Horse Effigy and Missionary Mary Collins." Black Hills Pioneer. Black Hills Pioneer, 28 Sept. 2012. Web. Nov. 2012. <http://www.bhpioneer.com/local_news/article_c977bdd0-0993-11e2-9711-0019bb2963f4.html>.

"Tribal Arts Instructor Co-curates Harvard Exhibit." United Tribes Technical 
        College. United Tribes News, 23 Feb. 2009. Web. Nov. 2012.